This is the tenth Digest compiled as a reference point for trade unionists, and trade union tutors in particular, interested in promoting greater understanding of international development. It is provided as a short cut and guide to information and resources, and is published each year. It contains brief reviews of some of the resources directly appropriate to trade unionists (i.e. designed for use with them), useful web sites and contact details of organisations involved in international development matters. For this edition there are new reviews in each section; older reviews have largely been removed and the web site reviews updated. The Digest is available in hard copy, or on-line via the TUC website, International link (see below). This edition has been funded by the TUC's Strategic Framework Partnership Arrangement, itself funded by the Department for International Development.
Action Aid (2008) Hit or miss? Women's rights and the Millennium Development Goals. Action Aid report 43pp
This report makes the case that women and girls are central to all the goals, and that progress in meeting them will continue to be insufficient until more attention is paid to upholding women's rights.
The report is structured around an analysis of each of the goals as they affect women and girls, and makes recommendations as to what needs to be done to 'achieve a global alliance for women's rights'. These include making achieving women's rights central to the goals, setting more ambitious targets for the goals, collecting better data and strengthening UN capacity on women's rights.
The central argument and analysis of the goals in terms of women's rights presents a perspective trade unionists will warm to, and presents much food for thought.
Action Aid (2007) Who pays? How British supermarkets are keeping women workers in poverty
For anyone looking for background information for campaigning around supply chains, this report practically has it all. It starts firmly in the UK, following the supermarket chain from the prices paid at the checkout, through the marketing techniques of bargain offers, monopolistic purchasing, global sourcing practices, to the squeeze on workers (largely women) at the end of the chain. This is the real Asda (or Sainsbury or Tesco) price.
There are then three chapters providing case studies of how this works for specific products - bananas, clothing and nuts. Each chapter details the business argument for the practices and the direct impact on working people, their attempts to unionise and adverse effect on chances of development. There are examples of who gets what as a proportion of the banana, the t-shirt and the cashew nut.
The step-by-step uncovering of the processes of exploitation is shocking. Thankfully, the report does not stop there but presents detailed recommendations, with a working model, of how the UK government can act to regulate the abuse of supply chains by the big supermarkets. There are actions there to be taken by all - from governments, to supermarkets, to consumers.
So here you have - a well-researched report, clear links to the UK, material for case studies, clear connections to decent work, labour standards, trade unions and - a campaign you can link into. (For more information on the Who pays campaign see the action aid web site).
ACTSA / Traidcraft / TUC (2007) New Deals New Danger. EPAs: a threat to workers. 12pp.
This is an alert to all trade unionists about trade discussions being carried out by the European Commission - and potentially disastrous for people in African, Caribbean and Pacific countries.
The pamphlet explains very clearly the background to the talks to bring the special trade arrangements that European countries have with former colonies into line with the World Trade Organisation rules. Dependent on aid, some of the poorest countries in the world are finding themselves unable to resist the negotiating pressures of the EU. The proposals - to open up their markets to European goods in return for access to European markets - seem destined to destroy agriculture and infant industrial production. Trade unions and trade ministers alike are quoted in their opposition to these trade deals.
The final section underlines the futility of pressing the Millennium Development Goals on the one hand and pressing for deals that will surely aggravate poverty on the other. It appeals for urgent action - to stop the unequal deals, to press for impact assessments on jobs and labour standards, and especially, to make these points to the trade minister.
Available for download at www.tuc.org.uk/extras/EPAbriefing.pdf
BWI & LRS (2007) Company Profiles in Construction for 2010 World Cup. Building and Wood Workers International (BWI) & Labour research Service (LRS). Oct. booklet. 21pp.
This booklet is dedicated to those construction workers who have died, been injured or are otherwise suffering hardship as a result of their work on the infrastructure for the 2010 World Cup in South Africa.
The information it contains is presented as a basis for discussion, debate and campaigning on the decent work agenda. It briefly details the poverty wages and stark conditions of the stadia and infrastructure workers in South Africa. It includes an excellent selection of construction company profiles showing directors' remuneration and workers' wages. Did you know it would take a general worker 139 years to earn the average annual income of a senior executive in the construction sector?
This is great stimulus material for use on courses or with branches. Use it now and help South African construction workers make the most of World Cup 'fever' to improve their conditions.
Available for download at www.bwint.org/pdfs/2010ConstructionBookletweb.pdf
CAFOD (2004) Clean Up Your Computer: Working conditions in the electronics sector. Jan. CAFOD Report, 40pp.
A well-written and well-researched report that explores the far from 'pc' conditions of workers in the PC electronics industry. It makes strong comparisons between the conditions of production of personal computers in the developing world with those usually regarded with horror in textiles. These typically involve high profit brand managers at the head of the chain with low wages and poor conditions at the production and processing end.
Part I details The Personal Computer Supply Chain, part II The Computer Companies and Labour Standards and Part III Working Conditions in PC Supply Chains: Mexico and China. The Report provides an excellent resource for use on IT, union representative and health and safety representative training courses. For trade unionists in general this is a relatively easy, informative read, laying bare as it does the too often unfair employment practices of the global economic model.
See website listed below for availability.
Canadian Labour Congress & Tony Biddle (2004) Globalization: Who's winning and who's losing? booklet 12pp
This is a short, easy to read comic-format booklet of great value to all trade unionists and trade union tutors. In just 12 pages it works through What is globalization?, through How we got here ... a quick history lesson to So how does the world look today? and Action for change. The booklet poses questions from a range of perspectives about globalization and its effects. It is both informative and a good stimulus to discussion and debate.
Available on-line at www.perfectworldproductions.com
Christian Aid (2006) The Climate of Poverty: facts, fears and hope. May, Christian Aid Report, 48pp
The news agenda may have shifted its focus from trade, debt and aid to climate change but, according to this report, climate and environmental change is also a pressing poverty issue. The way the report is written means that it builds interest as you read (rather than building a feeling of 'too-complex-for-me-to-understand-then') whether or not you have much prior knowledge.
First, the effects on developing countries and poor people in particular are considered, in the context of current climatic problems and energy uses. These are not simply left at the level of abstract references, but illustrated with situations being experienced in Africa now. This is followed up with examples of how the involvement of poor people in developing and using alternative energy forms can help solve some practical problems and contribute to development. The report has two country case studies that show how in Kenya climate change is leading to conflict because of drought, and how in Bangladesh floods are affecting lives and livelihoods.
Christian Aid (2004) Taking liberties: poor people, free trade and trade justice. Christian Aid Report, 68pp
In introducing the survey of the impact of free trade policies on the developing world over the last 20 years, this report places itself fairly and squarely in the camp of 'exploding the myth of free trade'. It traces evidence of how poor countries have not only remained poor, but many have become poorer, and the fact that the gap between rich and poor nations has become wider. As more than half the worlds' workers exist on less than $2 (£1.30ish) a day, this report will clearly be of interest to all trade unionists. (NB This is slightly less than the $2.20 per day for the average European cow currently being paid out in subsidies to their owners.)
The report briefly explores how trade affects people's lives, and how the gearing of economies to colonial needs has meant that post independence many developing countries remain vulnerable to shifts in trade policies. A section on 'The lessons from history' compares the experience of developing countries in the 1960s and 70s with that of the 80s and 90s. This is followed by illustrative case studies of India, Mozambique and Honduras. The final section then uses the research to tackle the political rhetoric that forms the myths, and puts forward proposals for how trade can really begin to function in the interests of poor people.
Available at www.christianaid.org.uk/Images
/taking_libertiespdf_tcm15-21633.pdf or see Organisations listed below.
Dana Frank (2005) Bananeras: women transforming the banana unions of Latin America. South End press, Cambridge, MA
The 'popular' style and presentation of serious issues in this book makes it a bit of a mold breaker. Despite having over 20 pages of research references, it would still make for a captivating bedtime (or any other time) read. It follows the development of women activists in the banana unions of Central America.
The rise of women within the unions is interesting in itself, but it is made much more so by the steadfast approach to looking at the whole of the women's experience as trade unionists - be that at work, in the union or at home. Its power is also in integrating what sometimes might seem like small things (attendance at a meeting, the company of like-minded women) into the bigger picture of organising collectively to improve lives and livelihoods.
Available from Bananalink, £10 + P&P. See Website or Organisations listed below.
DFID (2004) The Rough Guide to a Better World and How You Can Make a Difference. DFID booklet, 96pp.
Produced by Rough Guide travel team in collaboration with the Dept for International Development, this pocket-sized booklet deals with international development issues in easy to access format. The foreword by Bob Geldof, typically does not mince words about issues of poverty and development - those hidden worlds of decay, decline and death [that] whisper to us through the unfair trade of the supermarket shelves - and, of course, the need and possibilities for doing something about it.
The booklet then has two principal sections - one that explores globalization and development, and identifies the scale and scope of problems for development. The second part deals with how we can make a difference - Speaking out on behalf of poor people (including a small paragraph on trade unions), Making trade ethical, Ethical Tourism, and Charity.
The booklet is a welcome tool in raising awareness that we can all do something to help change the situation of the poor. Tutors and reps will be able to make good use of its availability and easy to read format. But, they will need supplementary information to speak with confidence about the role and significance of trade union activity in helping people access their rights and, thereby, improve the conditions of their lives.
Available from Post Offices, or see
www.dfid.gov.uk/Pubs/files/rough-guide/better-world.pdf for a downloadable copy.
ICFTU (2006) Fighting for Alternatives: cases of successful trade union resistance to the policies of the IMF and World Bank. April, ICFTU Report, 67pp.
This is an uplifting publication - partly because it focuses on success, but also because it shows the strength of trade union and civil society bodies working together. It describes how international, national trade union centres and local organisations worked to combat, reject and even overturn ill-conceived IMF and World Bank policies.
Six country case studies (Uruguay, S. Africa, Croatia, Argentina, Indonesia and Tanzania) focus on campaigns against the privatization of water, railways, postal services, the restructuring of power and, finally, a failing water privatization. In each case, background information is given on the country context, the way in which IMF and World Bank commitment to privatization was effected, the impact on working people and their response. This is followed by accounts of other successes of trade union campaigning on core labour standards and debt relief.
The report is not a heavy read. It is illuminating and absorbing. There is something for all trade unionists here - for building knowledge, understanding the push for privatisation, recognising the potential of good organisation, providing examples of success, a source of case studies for teaching, a source of concrete achievements for building optimism and positive planning.
Available for download at www.icftu.org/www/PDF/IFI.pdf
ICFTU/Oxfam (2004) Play Fair At The Olympics: respect workers' rights in the sportswear industry. Oxfam, Clean Clothes Campaign, Global Unions, Report, 77pp
This is an excellent report which, in spite of its topical focus will be of practical value for trade union tutors and trade unionists in general long after the Olympics are over. The impact of the report is heightened by the research that went into it. The experience of workers is gathered together (permanent, temporary, agency, union and non-union members in six countries), along with those of sportswear brand owners, contractors and sub-contractors (from the concerned to the unconcerned about labour rights).
The Report has three chapters - dealing with the experience of workers, the global market for sportswear goods and exploration of precisely where the difficulties lie in improving the situation of abuse of workers and their rights. Charts and diagrams are used to set out relationships in the supply chain, the mismatch in specific companies between inspection evidence and actual working conditions, and the gap between trade union rights in theory and the practical realities. These present a subtle lesson in the economics of globalisation - powerfully and painlessly.
Available from Oxfam (see Organisations listed below) or downloadable from www.fairolympics.org
ICFTU (2004) A Trade Union Guide to Globalisation. ICFTU. 2nd edition
This is the second edition of the much used and respected guide, published together with Global Union Federations, intended for use in trade union education, and as a reference book for trade unionists in general.
Part I of the book - Globalisation and Solidarity - provides a level of analysis of globalisation that avoids over-simplification without being too complex. It then sets out the international framework for trade union action and social justice, the challenge of multinationals, and the new concept of corporate social responsibility. Part II - The Practical International Dimension of Trade Union Work - focuses more on the everyday implications of meeting the challenges. This has lots of examples and case studies of the circumstances and way in which a range of international action can be initiated and sustained. There are excellent chapters on company information and research, and trade union campaigns with an international dimension.
The appendices should not be overlooked - they contain details of global union federations and other international trade union organisations, plus handy references to core labour standards and the ILO conventions on which they're based. A highly usable and valuable handbook for all trade unionists.
Available from ICFTU (see Organisations listed below) or online at www.icftu.org/pubs/globalisation
ICTUR (a) Freedom of Association: the Protection of Trade Union Rights Worldwide, (b) Child Labour: Time for Global Action, (c) Equality At Work: the Global Picture, (d) Forced Labour: Mapping a Global Problem
These are great posters for any Union office or Trade Union Education Centre. They provide a visual image of support around the world for the ILO's core labour standards. They can be used to aid training across a range of trade union activity, bringing to life facts and statistics. They are colourful, informative, a focus for maybe illustrating a point, or for browsing over, reflecting upon and coming back to. You can view them on-line before ordering.
Available from ICTUR (see Organisations listed below) or www.ictur.labournet.org/Maps.htm £5 each, £15 for the set of 4.
ILO (2005) A global alliance against forced labour. ILO Global Report
For any detailed work on forced labour, this report is a must. Freedom from forced labour was part of the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work (considered binding on all member states) and this is a four yearly report required by the follow-up. Much other research and comment on forced labour uses information from this report.
Part I focuses on Understanding and measuring forced labour today - including definitions (a good thing to have as interpretations vary widely!), statistical estimates and description of the main forms of forced labour. Part II details A dynamic global picture, looking at changes in the nature of forced labour, its causes, experiences and dilemmas in combating forced labour, the significance of state forced labour, poverty, discrimination, migration and globalization. Part III deals with Global action to combat forced labour - information in ILO work to date and its current action plan.
For all trade unionists, this is a great source of hard facts and statistics and like any good report, will not only provide answers to questions but raise new ones too. For the activist, information on where progress is being made provides motivating examples, and the action plan a place for anchoring campaigns.
Available for download at www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.
ILO (2005) Rules of the game: a brief introduction to International Labour Standards. ILO booklet, 95pp
The key theme of this report is that, as economic development is based on rules - property and contract rights, respect for procedure etc - it is more than fitting that these cover labour practices too. The undesirable, unsustainable, widening poverty gap and glaring injustices accompanying globalisation have made international labour standards more relevant than ever.
The first part moves on from the case for international labour standards to detail what exactly they are, how they are created and how they are used. The core of the report then focuses on subjects covered by the standards, giving them life as rules about the right to form trade unions, have decent wages and working time, maternity protection and migrant workers, social policy and occupational safety and health. The final section covers implementing and promoting international labour standards. This is the stuff that should inform Codes of Practice, workplace and government policies the world over. Not light reading, but a good overview of the case for labour standards everywhere.
Available for download at www.ilo.org/global/
ITF (2002) Globalising Solidarity. An ITF resource book for trade unionists in the transport sector. ITF. 64pp
An information packed A4 booklet aimed at educators and activists in the transport sector. It is designed to help unions and workers discuss and understand the way in which globalisation affects their lives, their jobs and how they need to organise themselves.
Its first section explores What is globalisation?, immediately engaging readers with different perspectives, and the identification and recognition of their own. The second part then looks at Globalisation in the Transport Sectors - detailing the practical effects of globalisation, including the experience of transport workers in defending their rights and conditions. The final section then works on Mobilising Global Solidarity - the need for cross sector support, communication and action.
This is a substantial booklet in terms of content and the activities at the end of each section, and taken as a whole is perhaps best suited to the more experienced rep or activist. The information and case studies it contains are well researched and provide a solid basis for discussion and an invaluable reference point for activists in the sector.
Available from ITF - see Organisations listed below, or downloadable from web-site.
ITF (2002) Workers' Rights are Human Rights. An ITF resource book for trade unionists in the transport sector. ITF. 67pp
This booklet is aimed at activists, educators, officers and officials in the transport sector. It presents a combination of information, case studies, key points for discussion and activities, encompassing all the transport sectors.
The first two parts examine the undermining of workers' and human rights affected by neo-liberal globalisation. This includes a fairly powerful section on the implications of government/organisation policies on refugees and migrant workers - policies that transport workers themselves can be required to implement. It is followed by consideration of whether some rights (for some people) are more important than others, and the significance of changing attitudes.
The third part contextualises workers' rights at their different levels - global, national, local, and the different structures through which they have legitimacy and can be upheld. This, and the following section on Taking Action for Rights has lots of case studies and examples - providing practical tips, guidelines and stimulus for activism.
Available from ITF - see Organisations listed below, or downloadable from website.
ITUC (periodic) Union View
Union View is a visually beautifully produced periodic publication. There are currently eight in the ITUC archive. Each one explores a specific country situation by way of focusing on union issues. These variously include, for example, Guatemala, Cambodia, Guinea, and Jordan, covering the fight against impunity, migrant workers, unions as an engine of change and the informal economy. They are a great, informative (and so good for teaching) resource, many backed up by video clip interviews (see website review below www.ituc-csi.org/spip.php?mot71
Labour Behind the Label (2006) Let's clean up fashion: the state of pay behind the UK high street. 84pp
This Labour Behind the Label report uses the thing every worker needs - a decent living wage - to get behind what leading high street names would like us, the consumers, to associate with their fashion goods.
The initial chapters explore the idea of a living wage and its importance for working people and companies alike. This will surely be of great interest in itself to all trade unionists. The discussion is followed by a gem of a chapter Why Trade Unions Are Important. This demonstrates the contradiction between the big high street names' professed commitment to workers' rights, their suppliers' industrial relations practices, and their own pricing policies.
Subsequent chapters look at the practical inadequacies of many Codes of Conduct and social audits, and make recommendations for brand action to make sure the realities of their supply chain meet their commitments in theory to good practice.
The final chapter too is well worth a browse, as this goes through the responses of most names on your high street to the living wage survey - marking them as feet-draggers through to pulling ahead. This isn't designed to inspire guilt (on the consumers' part at least), but to inform us of where big brand names are buoyed by less than living wages. There is though, lots of information for caring people to act on and let high street suppliers know when their supply conditions offend.
Available for download at www.labourbehindthelabel.org/resources/reports/126-cleanupfashion, or see Organisations below.
Playfair 2008 (2007) No medal for the Olympics on labour rights. Booklet, 30pp.
This is a timely report on the link between the Olympics, licensing to produce Olympic goods and exploitation in the supply chains. It contrasts the fair play sporting ideals of the Olympics with the unfair play experienced by workers producing goods in their name.
It includes new research, building on the Playfair at the Olympics report (reviewed above)and provides an update on the ongoing campaign.
Available at www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/playfair_2008.EN.pdf
TUC (2008) Fair Play? International sports events and workers rights (2006) Slave and Forced Labour in the Twenty First Century; (2005) Trade and Trade Unions; (2004) International Development and the Trade Union Role; (2004) Refugees and Migrant Workers. TUC Fact files and activities packs for trade union tutors
These fact files have been produced in response to feedback from trade union tutors. Each pack has a series of short, explanatory Fact Sheets followed by activities for use in an educational setting and tutor notes.
They are multi-purpose in design - to assist tutors and union officers in professional updating, to provide background information and activities that can be used on courses or in workshops, and as a focus for support and ideas for all trade unionists wishing to know/do more about international issues. The work has been supported by the Department for International Development, as part of the Strategic Framework Partnership Arrangement with the TUC.
Available at www.tuc.org.uk/international/tuc-9732-f0.cfm
TUC (2007) Getting to the Core - Trade Unions and International Core Labour Standards
This small booklet starts out by clearly explaining what the ILO's core labour standards are and how they came into being. It offers five well-argued reasons for why they are necessary and points out that if the same attention was paid to ensuring universal respect for core labour standards as is paid to securing free trade, it would be a huge step towards enabling people to improve their own lives. The last section sets out the international trade union movement's agenda for core labour standards, and offers robust answers to often quoted myths, before ending with suggestions about how trade unionists can get involved.
Available at www.tuc.org.uk/international/core_intro.cfm
TUC (2004) Trade unions and international health and safety. 2nd ed. TUC. Workbook, 115pp
This welcome updating of the original CTUC workbook has been produced by the TUC with the support of the Department for International Development. It is designed specifically for use with union health and safety reps - for either development of short courses, or as a resource for integrating in other courses. Individual reps, health and safety or branch committees would also find this an easy to use resource in terms of developing a broader understanding of health and safety issues.
The workbook leads reps from the contextual and motivating factors for developing an international perspective on health and safety, through campaigns, structures, issues, and future strategies. Each section is divided into activities with supportive fact sheets, providing a complete study pack - and is well-referenced for pursuing research and building contacts. A publication every health and safety rep and trade union centre would benefit from having access to.
Available from TUC (see Organisations or Website listed below). £40 each (£10 for member unions).
TUC International Development Matters. TUC. Monthly Newlsetter
International Development Matters is a monthly newsletter for trade union members who want more information about development issues, and is distributed free by e-mail. It includes news about trade unions in developing countries, trade union visitors to the UK, trade and globalisation, funding opportunities for development projects, useful sources of information and events, and publications. Trade union educators could well use this it as stimulus material for discussing why and how the interests of trade unionists everywhere are inextricably linked. The new format uses hyperlinks and is now much easier to read on-line.
Available by registering on-line - www.tuc.org.uk via the International link.
UNISON (2004) Twinning. How to develop contact with sister unions around the world. UNISON. Booklet, 17pp
An easy to use, and straight forward booklet for any trade unionists looking to establishing links with unions in other countries. It considers different reasons for twinning, what is involved, and how to make it happen. This is accompanied by checklists on the practical arrangements, financing visits, and a pro forma for setting out a twinning project. It presents a practical guide for reps and members and a useful resource for trade union tutors.
The booklet can be ordered or down-loaded at www.unison.org.uk/international/pages_view.asp?did=3603
War on Want (2005) (a) Caterpillar (b) Asda Wal-Mart. The Alternative Report Series. 12pp (c) Globeleq (d) Coca-Cola (e) Anglo-American
These form part of War on Want's 'The Alternative Report Series'. Their purpose is to compare and contrast companies' verbal commitment to corporate social responsibility with what they do in practice. The reports form part of War on Want's ongoing campaign for a global framework of corporate regulation, and each recommends action that ordinary people can take to rein in the power of multinational corporations around the world.
The content of the reports is similar in that they consider what Caterpillar and Asda Wal-Mart say about themselves in the light of what they actually do. The evidence shows a gap (if not chasm) between Caterpillar's claim to high ethical standards, and its disregard for the end use of its machinery in bulldozing homes, farms, land and lives in the Occupies Palestinian territories. The report on Asda similarly contrasts the company's folksy 'all working together to do the right thing' theory with its anti-trade union, 'squeeze 'em til the pips squeak' trading practices.
The subject matter provides suitable case study material for trade union education and training. The style is highly readable and rounds off with a 'Take Action' page that demands confirmation that these particular stories aren't quite finished.
Available from War on Want www.waronwant.org/Latest20Research20for20Download+8247.twl
Videos and DVDs
An increasing number of web sites now post short (2- 5 min) video clips on their web sites, or provide links to YouTube clips. They tend to be variable in quality - but there are some excellent ones. They can provide an informative alternative to written material and, for those of you under pressure, they provide quick, easy access.
Action Aid (2008) Who pays? Web site video clip, 5 mins.
Given the five minutes it lasts this is a great, inspiring video clip. It takes the viewer through the early morning routine of a woman packing her children off to school, and in the process raises awareness and encourages action.
As Mrs Summers variously gets her children dressed, prepares breakfast and lunchbox, the walls (and other bits of the kitchen!) talk to her about the workers that produced the t-shirt, the fruit, the nuts etc. This is an effective way of raising the issue of supermarket practices and the costs involved in their 'cheap' offers. It is though, not about producing guilt, but the power to act and join in campaigning.
Available at www.actionaid.org.uk/100621/blog.html?article=125
ETI (2007) Secrets and Lies: uncovering ethical trade audit fraud. Ethical Trading Initiative. 10 mins
This short film was commissioned by ETI to highlight the pervasiveness of fraud in ethical trade audits - and, by implication, to demonstrate that they are on to it. It is intended to stimulate debate about what constitutes good auditing.
The visual impact is somewhat undermined by the fact that filming was carried out undercover, and by the subtitling of (Chinese) contributions and disguising of contributors. Yet in just 10 minutes the film demonstrates how fraud takes place: from fake wage and hours records, to fake identity cards for underage workers, to well practiced plans to deceive visiting auditors. It further poses the issue of client companies making impossible demands on producers and then proposing fake records to be able to meet demands. Plenty here to inform discussion and planning among trade unionists and company management alike.
Available from firstname.lastname@example.org
Fair Trade Center (2004) Santa's Workshop. Fair Trade Center/Lotta Films with the support of the Swedish Trade Union Confederation's cultural fund. 33mins
Despite the seasonal title, this is a video about the general pay and conditions involved in the production of toys in China and can be used at any time of year.
It differs from other productions about workers' conditions elsewhere in the world, in the sense that the voice of workers in the offending factories is noticeably absent, as the video producers found access difficult. Trade unions in China are a function of the state and workers cannot organise independently. UK trade unionists will know that China is increasingly a magnet for cheap production and the relocation of jobs, but will have little information on what this economic miracle actually looks like. In formulating an image of what life is like for workers at the centre of China's production boom, this video will be of interest and relevance to all trade unionists.
The video starts by looking at the rapid development of China in the last 25 years - from fields to high rise and production for the 20 billion euros spent on toys in Europe each year. It explores the use of cheap female migrant labour in the supplying factories, which come complete with canteens and dormitories. Here workers work 7 days a week, 14 hours a day to complete orders, whether they like it or not.
Available from email@example.com or tel: 00 46 643 43 64, cost 18 euros (£12-ish) + 7 euros pp.
ICTU (2002) Race to the Bottom. Esperanza Productions. 52 mins
The first part of this video explores the pros and cons of the garment sector in Bangladesh, 75% of whose workers are women. It deals with the reality of women's lives - the independence afforded by employment on the one hand, and the high cost in terms of long hours, and health and safety abuses on the other. This is linked to the ever lower prices offered for goods by European and American retailers who maintain their profit margins by squeezing their suppliers.
Just as we might be lulled into thinking that life is different in other parts of the world, the scene shifts to the rise and fall of the garment industry in Northern Ireland since the 1960s. Working people chart having to leave school to work in the sector, their long hours, poor conditions, the fear of joining a trade union given the priority to 'put food on the table'; and the moment when their cheap labour was no longer cheap enough, the decline of the sector.
Back in Bangladesh the new cheap labour is finding that their labour is no longer cheap enough either, as the retailers and buyers begin to contract in China where unit labour costs in garments is half that of Bangladesh. The pace of the Race to the Bottom is underlined by some comments (highly useable for trade union tutors) from leading trade unionists - We need to be aware of conditions in other countries, and why - our contribution at present is our ignorance. The video finishes on a chilling note of desperation from an employer - you must emphasise to Western buyers what they are doing - we only have the garment sector, there is no place else for our 1.6m garment workers to go.
This is a knowledge-building, thought provoking production which trade unionists and trade union tutors will be able to use in a number of ways. It is quite a lengthy video, but there is lots of scope for structuring work around the issues it raises.
Available from Esperanza Productions: www.esperanza.ie
Public Services International (2003) Pay Equity Now! Merlin Films. 13 mins
Short and to the point, this is a CD/DVD that literally brings home both the injustice and dangers of unequal pay. It starts with a snapshot of how in the Philippines, women's pay in relation to men's has actually gone down since the 1960s. Union campaigning on the issue is finding new resonance as the effect on poverty and the quality and levels of service is finally being acknowledged.
In Namibia, the legacy of injustice and discrimination affecting women in the labour market, has led Windhoek City Council to audit its workforce to identify the position of workers. The results underline the link between low levels of literacy and skills, and inequality. Here compulsory consultation has presented opportunities for the union to press pay equity and monitor progress towards it.
Finally, North Yorkshire dinner ladies show how privatisation reduced their pay and conditions, as contractors saw it as 'pin money'. Recognising this as gender discrimination their union helped them win their case for equal pay.
Covering a number of clear, simple messages in a short space of time, this is a great video for use with workplace reps, equalities reps and union learning reps.
TVE International (2004) The Millennium Development Goals: dream or reality? 27mins.
For those who have little previous knowledge of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), this is a good introduction to them. The rationale behind them is put by those with varying responsibilities for taking them forward at international, European and national level. The goals are contextualised with footage from developing countries, and the potential spin-off on achieving the goals is explained.
A critical edge to the video is introduced by the narrator's questions - posing the problem of governments who are not committed, unfair trade practices of Europe and the USA and the disproportionate amount spent on defence compared to development. Its weakness is in that, other than briefly mentioning reproductive rights, rights are not dealt with at all. Nevertheless, as an educational tool its strong points are in that it provides a clear introduction to the MDGs and the rationale behind them, and begins to open out some of the difficulties for achieving them. It also leaves the field wide open for discussion of the potential contribution of a rights based approach to poverty reduction and, of course, the particular role of trade unions.
A transcript for the DVD is available via the website.
Available from TVE International, £35 + pp. See Websites or Organisations below for details.
As with any other information source, the web sites listed here vary in terms of language, structure, usefulness for specific issues, and ease of access. They have been selected and reviewed with the key question in mind: What might trade union members and educators interested in development issues find useful on this site? As with all websites, users should check when the site was last updated - some sites, or sections of sites are not maintained or their subject material can date very rapidly.
The reviews below are not summaries of the sites - surfers will find far more on them than is commented upon below. The comments are provided as guidance to those trade unionists who want to find out more about international issues and to develop their activism in some way. There is a wealth of information available on international development, and much of it is produced or targeted for specific groups. The purpose of this listing is to help those using the internet to find answers to questions they have as trade unionists do so more quickly and effectively.
This is the UK site of the international charity that works to overcome the poverty and injustice that causes it, key to which is its work with poor and marginalized groups to help them build their ability to defend their own interests.
Action Aid is particularly good for well-researched information and reports, and now has a series of related YouTube picture presentations (see website or sections above for review). These are a great educational resource - information, visuals and campaign proposals all in one place.
The What We Do link provides information on Action Aid's work on Trade, HIV/AIDs, Women's Rights and more (for more detailed info on activities globally visit the international website by omitting the UK in the address bar). The What You Can Do link lists up to the minute actions that you can take - or get ideas from for your union group's own.
Action for Southern Africa (the successor organisation to the Anti-Apartheid Movement) campaigns to support peace, democracy and development across the region. ACTSA works to influence decision makers of British and European policies that affect Southern Africa. It keeps the region in the political spotlight through lobbying, publication of reports and briefings and media work.
The web-site has links to information on specific campaigns - democracy in Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Angola, EPAs, HIV & Aids and Corporate Accountability . See especially the video clip, part of the Dignity! Period campaign. You can campaign at grass roots level and set up or find local groups through the Get Involved link.
This site provides a comprehensive range of information on slavery and forced labour past and present. A simple hover of the mouse over the pictures on the home page will produce drop down menus revealing the sub-sections of each link. For background history on the slave trade click About Us, for detailed fact sheets on forms of slavery and forced labour today click Slavery Today. The Campaigns link provides a range of actions appropriate for trade union activity, and the Resources link stacks of support for that. The Shop link too has DVDs, posters, cards, books, and colour maps on child and forced labour - for no more than the cost of the postage.
Web-site of the campaigning organisation for sustainable production and trade in bananas. The banana - and the wealth of information, campaign options and resources on it here - provides a focus for the discussion of the injustices of international trade. This is all the more useful, as this organisation works closely with banana workers' unions and actively campaigns to support the right to freedom of association.
The site is a fairly comprehensive guide to everything you might want to know about bananas. There are links to further information on the banana trade, the companies involved (and their approach to trade unions), trade policy, who pays the real costs of bananas (with slides), alternatives for the future, campaigns (see esp. the Union to Union sub-section). There are also activities, games, posters, DVDs that could be used for working on the situation of banana workers in Latin America.
There is something about the familiarity of the banana that makes this site compelling.
The web site of the Building and Woodworkers' International is a gem of a site. Click a link on the left, and related news items appear in the middle, and sub-section links, articles and publications on the left. All websites should have such integrated access.
The site is not large and it is worth a browse through the links - Building and construction, Health & safety, Migrant workers, Multinationals and more. These reveal such handy items as presentations, lists of framework agreements and lots of health & safety resources.
This site gives information on how the Development Education Association supports development education programmes in the UK. It has links that detail its approach to work with adults, including community education, higher education, schools and youth work. The site describes its approach to these aspects of its work and contact points for obtaining its twice-yearly Global Learning Newsletter, as well as information on training courses for educators. There are no specific references to work with trade unions, but there is a list of Development Education Centres for those interested in joining a group in their local area.
The Dept for International Development (DFID) has a specific remit to promote development and reduce poverty (set out in the 2002 International Development Act). The web site provides news and updates on topical issues and projects, and a facility to subscribe to the free quarterly magazine Developments. The Site map linkis probably the best place to start in looking for DFID policy and practice. For more specific information, the Search facility can be used e.g. inserting <trade unions> and selecting sort by date will provide a list of meetings, statements, policy approaches etc affecting trade unions, with most recent first. DFID and the TUC have produced an online guide covering how trade unions contribute to international development. Titled 'How to http://www.dfid.gov.uk/aboutdfid/dfidwork/tradeunions/contents.asp
The re-designed site of Education International - the Global Union Federation for the education sector. It has a very busy home page, with more than fifty links, some of which have relatively small amounts of information subdivided into further links (Introduction, Policy, Activities, Documentation, Links).
This site will be of interest to both reps and trade union tutors. The Ethical Trading Initiative involves companies, NGOs and trade unions in working together to identify and promote ethical trading. Each link and sub-link has drop-down menus, making this a relatively easy site to research information. The Activities and Resources link has information on experimental projects and issues which will be of interest to trade unionists interested in progressing ethical trading. It has examples of joint work in promoting and implementing Labour Codes of Practice, ethical sourcing and other initiatives. A list of existing members can be accessed, and there's information on how new members can join.
This updated site provides up-to-date news on unions internationally, together with links to its constituent organisations.
Hazards magazine website is relatively small, but there are links here to trade union organisations, campaigns and health and safety issues in the developed and developing world. See especially the News, Campaigns and Working World sub-sections. This last links to editions of Hazards that deal with, for example, shipbreaking in India, supply chains, successful international union campaigning on asbestos, the dirty secrets of the 'clean' silicon chip industry from Scotland to India, and global union activities in construction.
The site of the International Federation of Chemical, Energy, Mine and General Workers' Federation is structured so that you can access information via global regions, industrial sector or issues. These cover Global Framework Agreements (agreed principles to be observed in multinational companies), Global ICEM Corporate Networks (a means of communication for those working anywhere for the same employer), Gender Issues, and Health & Safety. UK affiliates include AEEU, CATU, EMA, GMB, GPMU, MSF, TGWU, and USDAW.
This is the site of the now superseded International Confederation of Trade Unions - see ITUC site review below. Pre-November 2006 documentation and materials can still be found here. Trade Union tutors will find the links to Multinational Enterprises, List of Framework Agreements and Trade and Labour Standards particularly useful in working with reps. A Trade Union Guide to Globalisation can also be accessed on-line.
The web site of the International Centre for Trade Union Rights is quite small. It has an About section and some of the latest News items from Labourstart. Articles from its journal International Union Rights can also be accessed and subscribed to online. So too can the very excellent series of maps on Labour Rights worldwide (see review above).
The International Federation of Journalist's site has information on professional issues, union policy and practice, and broader contextual information such as on globalisation and human rights. The About IFJ has a promising Making News for Democracy video clip (if you can make it work); but publications/resources are surprisingly few.
This is the site of the tripartite International Labour Organisation (ILO), at which the TUC represents the interests of British workers. Resources on development issues frequently quote the ILO labour standards, and these are listed on the site, together with a list of those countries that have ratified them.
The ILO magazine World of Work can be accessed online, and copies of its well-known journal International Labour Review can be ordered. There is also up to date information on World Summits, Assemblies and Conferences, as well as ILO Databases referring to labour statistics, occupational safety and more. This is a large, photo-rich site, and trade unionists are advised to keep clearly in mind what they want from the site, so as not to become overwhelmed by the volume of information on offer, and the time it may take to get it.
An easy to use web site for union affiliates in the steel, non-ferrous metals and ore mining, mechanical engineering, shipbuilding, automobile, aerospace, electrical and electronics industries. It has a good About section and Union Women link that provides updates and a useful Snapshots link to articles on the experiences of women trade unionists in different countries.
The Publications link provides access to a range of materials - from reports on specific multinationals to information on International Framework Agreements - all available in a format that can be downloaded.
This is the site of the independent trade union movement in Iraq. The site, like the movement, is growing and provides scarce information on what Iraqi trade unionists are themselves doing to make life better in changed but extremely difficult circumstances.
There is an interesting History link, plus lots of news items - testimony to the ongoing struggle and threat to trade unionists in this part of the world. Well worth a few clicks to find news from Iraq that rarely makes The News, and ideas as to the practical support you can give.
The International Transport Federation (ITF) site is user friendly, with easy to identify links to news and information on its specialist sectors and sub-sections. There's up to date news on the constituent sectors, resolutions and reports of its Congress, and information on campaigns.
The About ITF link has Information Sheets that provide lots of useful data on different aspects of the ITF's work - valuable for both members and those with a general interest in trade unions and development. Its latest publications are available on-line or to order, as is its quarterly magazine Transport International.
The International Textile, Garment and Leather Workers' Federation site is easy to use and has a wealth of information that both reps and Tutors will find useful. It has the usual About Us, Press Releases and Affiliates Only links, supplemented by topic specific links that have a common structure, enabling the user to access the related Federation Agenda for Action, publications, press release, news items and resources. The Agenda for Action provides plain English background information and ITGLWF proposals for dealing with the issues - representing accessible explanations and highly useable materials for both reps and tutors.
The Priorities links include MNCs, EPZs, Linking Trade and Worker Rights, Homeworking, Women's Issues, Wages and Working Conditions, Eliminating Child Labour, Health & Safety, and Organising and Defending Workers' Rights. This last then provides information on basic trade union rights, how to report a violation, the importance of organising and the Federation position statement. The Health & Safety section has the facility to order a video entitled The Thread of Life, and provides a good link to a web site of the same name, which promises to answer all health & safety questions from trade unionists in the sector. You can then follow the Education link to access to a simulation activity with tutor notes, and information on Globalisation, Workers' Rights and Codes of Conduct.
This is an information and resource rich site for all trade unionists interested in development issues, and it is well worth spending time exploring the links.
The website of the newly combined (Nov 2006) ICFTU (see web reference above) and WCL. For older information on the international activities of national trade union centres (such as the TUC) see the ICFTU site. From November 2006 information, publications and other resources are posted at this site.
The website of the global union federation for food, agriculture, hotel, restaurant, catering, tobacco and beverages sectors. The site lists its affiliates worldwide and is available in six different languages. There is a facility for Members Only to log on, and for whom a larger selection of items is available. UK members (UNITE, BFAWU, GMB, USDAW) can apply to their national HQ, or national secretaries for IUF sectors, to obtain log-ins.
When the site appears on your screen, the immediate image is of News and Editorial articles. To find the Key issues link, you will need to scroll down past the publications and other links on the left. The Women workers link is particularly worth a browse - it has access to an excellent Equality Guide plus articles and information useful to both reps and tutors.
Here you can find a wealth of information about the work of the coalition of British trade unions and other organisations in supporting the rights, and struggle for peace and social justice of Colombian people. Especially valuable is the Resources link - from which you can order the quarterly journal, posters (suitable for the Union office), booklets and articles.
New in the Resources section is a powerful five minute video clip. Watch this and be prepared to go straight to the Take Action or Projects link. This last details various JFC projects (health, metalworkers, teachers etc) - many of which are directly supported by UK trade unions. Check out what your union is or could be supporting.
The web site of the campaign that supports garment workers' efforts worldwide to improve their working conditions has a clear sector focus, with workers' rights and trade unions at its centre. Follow the Issues background/workers' rights and other sub-links or Campaigns for an overview of how this NGO works. Active in supporting trade unions locally, pressurizing company owners and brand managers, and in generally bringing campaigns home to consumer countries, you will find the site always has opportunities for individual or collective support. It is particularly good on making links between UK and developing country worker experience.
This is an invaluable site for all trade unionists. It provides up-to-date information on the trade union movement around the world. It has a facility for single country searches, and links to online forums, campaigns, video and radio clips, subscription to weekly mailings, plus guidance on how to set up and maintain a website. For trade union educators this is a rich source of items for background information and potential case studies, using current or archived articles.
If you are planning any work or have a general interest in migrant, refugee or asylum issues, then this site is a must. Here you can find information about inflows and outflows of people for almost any country you choose. Not only that, but information can be selected and presented in a range of formats - text, tables, graphs, comparative charts and interactive map. You can also access tools to help you write on migration issues, and if you don't find what you need there is a phone number with the hint of real, un-pre-recorded help at the end of it. The goal of the site is to put everything you need at your fingertips.
The co-operative that publishes the monthly magazine New Internationalist has a large website that includes on-line copies of the magazine, links to action groups created to work on the issues it publicises, and to its publications on world development. Information also extends to reviews of books, music and theatre that deal with developing world issues, as well as using calendars and cook books to spread information and generate interest.
The focus of the site is world development, and because this always involves what ordinary people can do to improve their lives, trade unions are a frequent theme of individual articles. Monthly issues such as Human rights, Corruption, Corporate responsibility unmasked, Poverty, Aid and activism, Transnationals, and Bread and roses: the trade union revival, can be viewed and subscribed to online.
New to the site are a series of weekly podcasts. These feature interviews on topical issues with well-known activists e.g. Dr Vandana Shiva, environmentalist on Not so super-markets and Jack Byrne on Temperatures rising: The privatization of public health systems.
It is worth taking time to follow through the links, or use the search facility for specific items. A valuable research site for both trade union educators and members.
A newly updated interactive homepage of an NGO working with a range of trade union partners in the Global South. The site has a range of news and reports especially on issues of women's rights, gender and democracy.
Visually, Oxfam's web site is a welcome change - uncluttered, large type and a few simple choices in terms of links Oxfam in action, Get involved and Resources. Thankfully these are not one way links, but are well integrated. For example, checking out the Oxfam in action for a campaign of interest (say, climate or debt) to you will give optional links that may take you into what you can do (Get involved section) or to further information (Resources section).
For trade union specific information you will need to do a search. There is not masses with a trade union focus, but there are some informational gems such as Offside! Labour rights and sportswear production in Asia.
These are the Beijing and London focussed sites of the Playfair campaign, and which the TUC has part in co-ordinating. The campaign involves raising awareness and bringing pressure to bear to eliminate the exploitation and abuse of workers in the global sporting goods industry.
Here you will find relevant research, company profiles, campaign demands, sample actions, leaflets and posters - all you need to take part.
Baby Milk Action, Campaign Against the Arms Trade and the TUC are a few of the more than 60 groups that make up the Trade Justice Movement, which campaigns for fundamental changes in unfair international trade rules. The News link provides up-to-date press articles and statements on campaign issues, including the TUC Congress resolution on trade. Trade union tutors may find this a good starting point for further exploration of the site contents. The Briefings and Resources link provides supportive information, notes and arguments on the campaign, together with tricky questions and simple answers.
The Trades Union Congress (TUC) website format presents an easy 'at a glance' visual summary as to its contents. Clicking on the International link provides a fuller list of sub-themes - including information on Human Rights, MNCs, Migration and Globalisation. The latest on-line version of this Digest can be accessed here, as can the DFID/TUC booklet Target 2015: Halving World Poverty. For development education material specifically designed for use by tutors and reps (migration and refugees, development, health & safety, trade, forced labour, international sports events) follow the links Funding and resources - education material - fact files.
Television for the Environment is an independent, non-profit organisation, which promotes global awareness of the environment, development, human rights and health issues. Click on the Life or Earth Report links for a list of the latest videos/DVDs that could provide useful background on specific development themes or issues, and many of which have transcripts. Alternatively, use the A-Z list in Resources to scroll through the whole 400 or so.
Union Network International was formed from a merger of FIET, MEI, IGF and CI. The web site is not always easy to read or to navigate and there did not seem to be a list of UK affiliates for the sectors covered (includes Casino, Commerce, Electrical, Finance, Graphical, Hair and Beauty, Postal, Tourism and others). There is a lot on this site, and lots of value to reps and tutors. The Themes link has useful info, especially on multinationals.
The website of War on Want which was founded by Victor Gollancz (who founded the Left Book Club in the 1930s) and Harold Wilson in 1951 to fight the war against poverty. It is an easy site to use - there are a small number of links, and each sub-link then has a clear list of contents you can click on. The Campaigns link is particularly useful for both Tutors and reps. It has a series of sub-sections e.g. Corporate Accountability, Trade Justice, Privatisation and Poverty and Palestine, that provide an overview of the issue. Many of these now have YouTube video clips.
Particularly useful for educational and campaigning work are the materials in Resources. These include a list of the video clips and publications, including the excellent Alternative Report series on multinationals such as Caterpillar and Asda Walmart.
In the current version of the web-site the Trade Unions link seems to have disappeared (as has the global workplace sub-site)- but if you do a 'Trade Unions' search you should find related information and a long list of the many trade union affiliations.
The web site of Public Services International - representing public sector unions - has links with drop-down menus, making it easy to use. There are global/regional links, each providing handy summaries of information and issues. Using the Meetings & Networks links reps can quickly identify PSI's scheduled meetings as well as latest news affecting the public sector. The Policy & Issues links has info, reports & policies grouped both thematically (e.g. Worker Rights) and according to sector (e.g. Health, Utilities). Valuable to reps and trade union Tutors alike, the Campaigns link has detailed information on action such as the Pay & Equity and HIV/Aids campaigns.
Similarly the Resources Centre has a list of publications available on-line. From this link click PSI Publications and then on the left hand side Browse by topic. This produces a long list including everything from Climate change to Equality to Union development. This time on clicking, the available publications appear to the right of the list. It is a shame these are so many 'clicks down the line - but the results are definitely worth browsing through. There is both teaching and development material available here.
Hamlyn House, Macdonald Rd, London N19 5PG
tel +44 (0)20 7561 7561
Vauxhall Bridge Rd, London SW1V
tel0203 263 2001
38 Exchange St, Norwich NR2 1AX
tel 01603 765670
Building and Woodworkers International (BWI)
54 Route des Acacias, PO Box 1412, CH 1227 Carouge-Geneva, Switzerland
tel 00 4122 8273777
Development Education Association
(DEA) CAN Mezzanine, 32-36 Loman St, London SE1 0EH
tel 020 7922 7930
Department for International Development
(DFID) 1 Palace St, London SW1E 5HE
tel 0845 300 4100
International Trade Union House, Bd du Roi Albert II, 5 B-1210 Brussels, Belgium
tel 00 322 224 0611
Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI)
Cromwell House, 14 Fulwood Place,London WC1V 6HZ
tel +44 (0) 20 7841 5180
European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC)
International Trade Union House, Bd du Roi Albert II, 5, B-1210 Brussels, Belgium tel 00 322 224 0411
International Centre for Trade Union Rights (ICTUR)
177 Abbeville Road, London, SW4 9RL
tel 020 7498 4700
International Federation of Chemical, Energy, Mine and General Workers' Unions (ICEM), 54 bis Route des Acacias, 1227 Geneva, Switzerland
tel 41 22 304 1840
International Federation of Journalists (IFJ)
International Press Centre, Rés Palace, Rue de la Loi 155, B-1040 Brussels, Belgium
tel 00 322 23 52200
International Metalworkers' Federation (IMF)
Route des Acacias 54 bis, Case Postale 1516, CH-1227 Carouge-Geneva, Switzerland
tel 00 4122 308 5050
International Textile, Garment and Leather Workers' Federation (ITGLWF)
8 Rue Joseph Stevens, (Bte 4), B-1000 Brussels, Belgium
tel 00 322 512 2606/ 512 2833
International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)
5 Boulevard du Roi Albert II, Bte 1, 1210 Brussels, Belgium
tel 00322 224 0211
International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF)
49-60 Borough Rd, London SE1 1DS
tel 020 7403 2733
International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers' Associations (IUF)
Rampe du Pont Rouge, 8, CH1213 Petit Lancy, Switzerland
tel 00 4122 7932233/37
Justice for Colombia
9 Arkwright Rd,London, NW3 6AB
tel 0207 794 3644
Labour Behind the Label
10-12 Picton St, Bristol BS6 5QA
tel + 44 (0) 117 944 1700
Oxfam House, John Smith Drive, Oxford OX4 2JY
tel 0870 333 2700
Public Services International (PSI)
BP9, F01211 Ferney-Voltaire, Cedex, France
tel 00 33 (0)4 50 406464
Stapleton House, 277-281 Holloway Rd, London N7 8HN
tel 020 7133 3330
TVE International. Television for the Environment
21 Elizabeth St, London SW1W 9RP
tel 020 7901 8855
UNI (Union Network International)
Avenue Reverdi, 8-10, CH-1260 Nyon, Switzerland
tel 00 4122 365 2100
Universal Alliance of Diamond Workers (UADW)
Langekievitstraat, 57 - Bus 1, B-2018 Antwerp, Belgium
tel 00 323 232 4860
War on Want
Development House, 56-64 Leonard St, London EC2A 4LT
tel 020 7549 0555
Women Working Worldwide
Rm 412 MMU Manton Building, Rosamund St West, Manchester M15 6LL
tel 0161 247 6171
For further information or comments on this Digest please contact Liz Rees, Unionlearn Trade Union Education Manager tel 020 7079 6923 email firstname.lastname@example.org or Jackie Williams, Unionlearn Education & Training Officer tel 020 7079 6924 email email@example.com
Issued: 24 April, 2008